(Peer-Reviewed) Universal Adversarial Examples and Perturbations for Quantum Classifiers
Weiyuan Gong ¹, Dong-Ling Deng 邓东灵 ¹ ²
¹ Center for Quantum Information, IIIS, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, People's Republic of China 清华大学 交叉信息研究院 量子信息中心
² Shanghai Qi Zhi Institute, 41th Floor, AI Tower, No. 701 Yunjin Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai 200232, China 上海期智研究院
National Science Review, 2021-07-22

Quantum machine learning explores the interplay between machine learning and quantum physics, which may lead to unprecedented perspectives for both fields. In fact, recent works have shown strong evidences that quantum computers could outperform classical computers in solving certain notable machine learning tasks. Yet, quantum learning systems may also suffer from the vulnerability problem: adding a tiny carefully-crafted perturbation to the legitimate input data would cause the systems to make incorrect predictions at a notably high confidence level.

In this paper, we study the universality of adversarial examples and perturbations for quantum classifiers. Through concrete examples involving classifications of real-life images and quantum phases of matter, we show that there exist universal adversarial examples that can fool a set of different quantum classifiers. We prove that for a set of k classifiers with each receiving input data of n qubits, an O(ln k/2ⁿ) increase of the perturbation strength is enough to ensure a moderate universal adversarial risk.

In addition, for a given quantum classifier we show that there exist universal adversarial perturbations, which can be added to different legitimate samples and make them to be adversarial examples for the classifier.

Our results reveal the universality perspective of adversarial attacks for quantum machine learning systems, which would be crucial for practical applications of both near-term and future quantum technologies in solving machine learning problems.
Universal Adversarial Examples and Perturbations for Quantum Classifiers_1
Universal Adversarial Examples and Perturbations for Quantum Classifiers_2
Universal Adversarial Examples and Perturbations for Quantum Classifiers_3
Universal Adversarial Examples and Perturbations for Quantum Classifiers_4
  • Perspectives and challenges for lead-free energy-storage multilayer ceramic capacitors
  • Peiyao Zhao, Ziming Cai, Longwen Wu, Chaoqiong Zhu, Longtu Li, Xiaohui Wang
  • Journal of Advanced Ceramics
  • 2021-11-12
  • On the Asymptotic Stability of Wave Equations Coupled by Velocities of Anti-symmetric Type
  • Yan Cui, Zhiqiang Wang
  • Chinese Annals of Mathematics, Series B
  • 2021-11-12
  • Effects on the emission discrepancy between two-dimensional Sn-based and Pb-based perovskites
  • Zhang Tianju, Zhou Chaocheng, Lin Jia, Wang Jun
  • Chinese Optics Letters
  • 2021-11-11
  • Hydrogels with Dynamically Controllable Mechanics and Biochemistry for 3D Cell Culture Platforms
  • Hai-Yang Wu, Lei Yang, Jiang-Shan Tu, Jie Wang, Jin-Ge Li, Hong-Ying Lv, Xiao-Niu Yang
  • Chinese Journal of Polymer Science
  • 2021-11-09
  • Feature and Tendency of Technology Transfer in Z-Park Patent Cooperation Network: From the Perspective of Global Optimal Path
  • Jun Guan, Jingying Xu, Yu Han, Dawei Wang, Lizhi Xing
  • Journal of Data and Information Science
  • 2021-11-08
  • Mechanical Design and Dynamic Compliance Control of Lightweight Manipulator
  • Shao-Lin Zhang, Yue-Guang Ge, Hai-Tao Wang, Shuo Wang
  • International Journal of Automation and Computing
  • 2021-11-06
  • Scalping or Line-sitting: The Role of Speculators
  • Qianqian Chen, Zhenyang Shi, Yi Yang
  • Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering
  • 2021-11-06
  • Substrate damage and recovery after giant clam shell mining at remote coral reefs in the southern South China Sea
  • Shengnan Zhou, Qi Shi, Hongqiang Yang, Xiyang Zhang, Xiaoju Liu, Fei Tan, Pin Yan
  • Journal of Geographical Sciences
  • 2021-11-05
  • Some Questions Regarding Verification of Carleson Measures
  • Fangwen Deng, Caiheng Ouyang, Ru Peng
  • Acta Mathematica Scientia
  • 2021-11-05
  • Direct growth of hexagonal boron nitride films on dielectric sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition for optoelectronic applications
  • Gaokai Wang, Jingren Chen, Junhua Meng, Zhigang Yin, Ji Jiang, Yan Tian, Jingzhen Li, Jinliang Wu, Peng Jin, Xingwang Zhang
  • Fundamental Research
  • 2021-11-05
  • Climate Suitability Assessment of Human Settlements for Regions along the Belt and Road
  • LIN Yumei, LI Peng, FENG Zhiming, YANG Yanzhao, YOU Zhen, ZHU Fuxin
  • Chinese Geographical Science
  • 2021-11-03

  • Non-spreading bessel spatiotemporal optical vortices                                A new finding on the prevalence of rapid water warming during lake ice melting on the Tibetan Plateau
    Copyright © PubCard