(Peer-Reviewed) All-climate aqueous Na-ion batteries using “Water-in-Salt” electrolyte
Yu Zhang ¹, Jie Xua ¹, Zhi Li ¹, Yanrong Wang ¹, Sijia Wang ², Xiaoli Dong 董晓丽 ¹, Yonggang Wang 王永刚 ¹
¹ Department of Chemistry and Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials, Institute of New Energy, iChEM (Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials), Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
² College of Pharmacy, Henan University of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou 450046, China
中国 郑州 河南中医药大学药学院
Aqueous Na-ion batteries have been extensively studied for large-scale energy storage systems. However, their wide application is still limited by their inferior cycle stability (< 3000 cycles) and poor temperature tolerance. Furthermore, many of the reported high rate behaviors are achieved at a low mass loading (<3 mg cm−2) of the electrodes. Herein, we propose an aqueous Na-ion battery which includes a Ni-based Prussian blue (NiHCF) cathode, a carbonyl-based organic compound, 5,7,12,14-pentacenetetrone (PT) anode and a “water-in-salt” electrolyte (17 mol kg−1 NaClO4 in water).
Its operation involves the reversible coordination reaction of the PT anode and the extraction/insertion of Na+ in the NiHCF cathode. It is demonstrated that the wide internal spaces of the PT anode and NiHCF cathode can not only buffer the volumetric change induced by Na+ storage, but also enable fast kinetics.
The full cell exhibits a supercapacitor-like rate performance of 50 A g−1 (corresponding to a discharge or charge within 6.3 s) and a super-long lifespan of 15,000 cycles. Moreover, the excellent rate performance can still be preserved even with a high mass loading of the electrodes (15 mgNiHCF cm−2 and 8 mgPT cm−2). Especially, the cell can work well in a wide temperature range, from −40 to 100 °C, showing a typical all-climate operation.