(Preprint) Amplitude-Phase Recombination: Rethinking Robustness of Convolutional Neural Networks in Frequency Domain
Guangyao Chen 陈光耀 ¹, Peixi Peng 彭佩玺 ¹ ³, Li Ma 马力 ¹ ³, Jia Li 李甲 ² ³, Lin Du ⁴, Yonghong Tian 田永鸿 ¹ ³
¹ Department of Computer Science and Technology, Peking University
² State Key Laboratory of Virtual Reality Technology and Systems, SCSE, Beihang University
³ Peng Cheng Laborotory
⁴ AI Application Research Center, Huawei
Recently, the generalization behavior of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) is gradually transparent through explanation techniques with the frequency components decomposition. However, the importance of the phase spectrum of the image for a robust vision system is still ignored. In this paper, we notice that the CNN tends to converge at the local optimum which is closely related to the high-frequency components of the training images, while the amplitude spectrum is easily disturbed such as noises or common corruptions.
In contrast, more empirical studies found that humans rely on more phase components to achieve robust recognition. This observation leads to more explanations of the CNN's generalization behaviors in both robustness to common perturbations and out-of-distribution detection, and motivates a new perspective on data augmentation designed by re-combing the phase spectrum of the current image and the amplitude spectrum of the distracter image. That is, the generated samples force the CNN to pay more attention to the structured information from phase components and keep robust to the variation of the amplitude.
Experiments on several image datasets indicate that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performances on multiple generalizations and calibration tasks, including adaptability for common corruptions and surface variations, out-of-distribution detection, and adversarial attack.