(Peer-Reviewed) Characteristics of the lunar samples returned by Chang'E-5 mission
Chunlai Li 李春来 ¹, Hao Hu 胡浩 ², Meng-Fei Yang 杨孟飞 ³, Zhao-Yu Pei 裴照宇 ², Qin Zhou 周琴 ¹, Xin Ren 任鑫 ¹, Bin Liu 刘斌 ¹, Dawei Liu 刘大卫 ¹, Xingguo Zeng 曾兴国 ¹, Guangliang Zhang 张广良 ¹, Hongbo Zhang 张洪波 ¹, Jianjun Liu 刘建军 ¹, Qiong Wang 王琼 ², Xiangjin Deng 邓湘金 ³, Caijin Xiao 肖才锦 ⁴, Yonggang Yao 姚永刚 ⁴, Dingshuai Xue 薛丁帅 ⁵, Wei Zuo 左维 ¹, Yan Su 苏彦 ¹, Weibin Wen 温卫斌 ¹, Ziyuan Ouyang 欧阳自远 ¹ ⁶
¹ Key Laboratory of Lunar and Deep Space Exploration, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
中国 北京 中国科学院 国家天文台 月球与深空探测重点实验室
² Lunar Exploration and Space Engineering Center, Beijing 100190, China
中国 北京 探月与航天工程中心
³ Beijing Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering, Beijing 100094, China
中国 北京 北京空间飞行器总体设计部
⁴ China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413, China
中国 北京 中国原子能科学研究院
⁵ State Key Laboratory of Lithospheric Evolution, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China
中国 北京 中国科学院地质与地球物理研究所 岩石圈演化国家重点实验室
⁶ Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550081, China
中国 贵阳 中国科学院地球科学研究院
National Science Review, 2021-10-14

Forty-five years after the Apollo and Luna missions returned the lunar samples, China's Chang’E-5 (CE-5) mission collected new samples from the mid-latitude region in the northeastern Oceanus Procellarum of the Moon. Our study shows that 95% of CE-5 lunar soil is distributed in the size of 1.40–9.35 μm, while 95% of the soil by mass is distributed in the size of 4.84–432.27 μm. The bulk density, true density, and specific surface area of CE-5 soil are 1.2387 g/cm3, 3.1952 g/cm3, and 0.56 m2/g, respectively. Fragments from CE-5 regolith are classified into igneous clasts (mostly basalt), agglutinate, and glass.

A few breccias were also found. The minerals and compositions of CE-5 soils are consistent with mare basalts and can be classified as low-Ti/low-Al/low-K type with lower rare earth element (REE) contents than materials rich in potassium, rare earth element, and phosphorus (KREEP). CE-5 soils have high FeO and low Mg index, which could represent a new class of basalt.
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